Sentence Pattern

Sentence Pattern Exercises

Sentence Pattern Exercise -1

Sentence Pattern

Sentence Pattern

Sentence patterns, also known as sentence structures, refer to the ways in which words and phrases are arranged to form grammatically correct sentences. Having a solid understanding of different sentence patterns is essential for effective communication in English, and it is an important skill to develop for success in the TOEFL exam.

In English, sentences generally consist of a subject, a verb, and an object. However, the specific arrangement of these elements can vary depending on the sentence pattern being used. Here are some common sentence patterns you may encounter in the TOEFL exam:
1- Subject + Verb: This is the most basic sentence pattern, where the subject performs an action expressed by the verb. For example: “He reads books.”
2- Subject + Verb + Object: In this pattern, the subject carries out an action on an object. For example: “She plays the piano.”
3- Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object: This pattern involves the subject performing an action on an indirect object, which in turn affects the direct object. For example: “They gave me a gift.”
4- Subject + Verb + Noun Clause: Here, the subject carries out an action on a noun clause, which functions as the object of the sentence. For example: “She believes that he is honest.”
5- Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Complement: In this pattern, the linking verb connects the subject with a subject complement that describes or identifies it. For example: “He is a doctor.”
6- Subject + Verb + Adverbial Phrase: This pattern involves the subject performing an action along with an adverbial phrase that provides additional information about the action. For example: “They went to the park yesterday.”
7- Subject + Verb + Adjective: Here, the subject carries out an action, and the adjective modifies or describes it. For example: “The movie was interesting.”
8- Subject + Verb + Prepositional Phrase: In this pattern, the subject performs an action along with a prepositional phrase that provides information about location, time, or manner. For example: “She ran to the store.”

These are just a few examples of sentence patterns that you may encounter in the TOEFL exam. It is important to study and practice a variety of sentence patterns to improve your overall English proficiency and maximize your success in the exam. By understanding and applying different sentence patterns, you can enhance the clarity and complexity of your sentences, which will ultimately contribute to your overall language proficiency.

Remember to practice constructing sentences using these patterns and review the grammar rules associated with each pattern. With dedicated practice, you can master sentence patterns and improve your performance in the TOEFL exam.

Identify the subject, verb, compliment, and modifier in each of the following sentences.

1. Our neighbor’s dog barked all afternoon.
2. Our walking group meets at seven o’clock in the morning.
3. The band played all evening.
4. June speaks at almost every staff meeting.
5. Mrs. Perez bought a new rug for her dining room.
6. Some cough medicines contain alcohol.
7. Bill carried his tools in a five- gallon plastic bucket.
8. Linda often buys snacks at the university store.
9. All of the buses are equipped with safety belts.
10.Paulette wore the same brand of blue jeans for twenty years.
11. Several inches of water flooded the basement of the library during the night.
12.Martin orders all his clothes from catalogues.
13.A typical supermarket sells more than 18,000 products.
14. One flea can lay 500 eggs.
15.A dangerous situation exists in the Near East.
16.Elliot first met Olivia in the snack section of a supermarket.
17.Mr. Pandolfo wrote his own will.
18.My new English class meets three times a week.
19.Ellain wanted to get a new hat at the store.

Sentence Pattern

Identify the part of speech of each word in the following sentences: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, article, conjunction, preposition, pronoun

1. The tiny island is surrounded by a spectacular body of water.
2. My pen is running out of ink.
3. I always wanted to go to that show.
4. Did you enjoy the party the other night?
5. My computer program is faulty.
6. The costumes in the pageant are almost as beautiful as the contestants.
7. The Paseo Del Rio runs along the San Antonio River in the heart of the city.
8. A beautiful photograph is a wonderful souvenir of an event.
9. You don’t need to read all the information to get the question right.
10. My sister was thrilled to be invited.
11 .In addition to being weatherproof, the new camera features a remote control.
12. The largest film festival in the world, the Houston International Film Festival, boasts 3,500 entries.
13. The main attraction of the new restaurant is the salad bar.
14. After deciding to go out and play, Gwen located her jacket.
15.The arboretum in our town has some beautiful pine trees.
16. Unlike those in the neighboring school, our teachers are quite flexible.
17. The bus was so late that we missed school.
18. The county fair is a lot of fun.
19. Leslie hid the dirty dishes in a cabinet before her mother came into the kitchen.
20. Pay’s recipe for baked beans is famous in our neighborhood.

Sentence Pattern

Sentence Pattern

Sentence patterns are made up of phrases and clauses.

A phrase is a group of connected words, but it is not a complete sentence because it is missing a subject and/or a verb. Phrases are just one component that makes up a complete sentence.
A clause contains a subject (actor) and a verb (action). There are two types of clauses:
An independent clause is a complete thought. It can stand alone as a complete sentence.
A dependent clause (a.k.a. subordinate clause) cannot stand alone as a complete sentence (even though it may contain a subject and a verb). It begins with a subordinating conjunction (because, when, while, after… and many more).
The possibilities are endless for different types of sentences patterns. Here are the most common and basic sentence patterns:

Pattern: Subject + Verb

The chef cooked.

Melissa reads.
She is eating.

Pattern: Adjective + Subject + Verb

The creative chef cooked.

I like eggs.
She sees her sister

Pattern: Adjective + Subject + Adverb + Verb

The creative chef methodically cooked.

Pattern: Adjective + Subject + Adverb + Verb + Prepositional Phrase

The creative chef methodically cooked in the kitchen.

Sentence Pattern

Sentence PatternSentence Pattern

Types Of Sentence Patterns

We will now look at 5 patterns in the English language.

Pattern 1 – Subject + Verb


Pauly waltzed onto the dancefloor. She read. The tired old woman cleaned often.

Pattern 2 – Subject + Verb + Direct Object


Pauly bought a new dress. She read the book. The old woman cleaned the drapes.

Pattern 3 – Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Indirect Object


Pauly bought her sister a new dress. The old woman gave the pharmacy her prescription.

Pattern 4 – Subject + Linking Verb + Noun Complement


Melissa was the class president. The boys were boy scouts.

Pattern 5 – Subject + Linking Verb + Adjective Complement


The house is very old. I am very hungry.

Choose the correct verb and then supply the past tense or past participle, as appropriate.

sit/set, lie/lay, rise/raise

Yesterday afternoon the child —– down for a nap.

a) lie

b)  lay

Answer: b)  lay

Yesterday afternoon the child lay down for a nap.

The child has been —– by her grandparents

a) rise

b)  raise

Answer: b)  raise

The child has been raised by her grandparents.

Most days her grandfather has —– with her, reading her stories.

a) sit

b) set

Answer: b) set

Most days her grandfather has sat with her, reading her stories.

She has —— at dawn most mornings.

a) rise

b) raise

Answer:  a) rise

She has risen at dawn most mornings.

Her toys were —— out on the floor.

a) lie

b) lay

Answer:  b) lay

Her toys were laid out on the floor.

Sentence Patterns

Basic English Sentence Patterns

A. When we make simple English sentences, we usually follow the Subject-Verb-Object pattern.
1. put the subject and the adjectives such as ‘fat’, ‘thin’ etc. or any words describing the subject at the beginning of the sentence
2. put the verb and some adverbs such as ‘often’, ‘usually’ etc. after the subject
3. put the object of the verb, the adjectives or other words describing the object and the adverbs describing the verb at the end of he sentence

Sentence Patterns

Subject Verb Object
Paul often eats biscuits
Mary ate two apples quickly.
My father and mother are eating mangoes now
The fat girl has eaten a watermelon.
That little boy will eat some bread soon.

Sentence Patterns

Basic English Sentence Patterns Exercise 3 Rearrange the words in correct order to make complete sentences. e.g. the fat cat / a mouse / is chasing. The fat cat is chasing a mouse.

1. that thin girl / is drinking / milk now

Answer : That thin girl is drinking milk now.

2. the robbers yesterday / the police / caught

Answer : The police caught the robbers yesterday

3. our teacher / like /we

Answer : We like our teacher.

4. my mother / my baby sister / is looking after

Answer : My mother is looking after my baby sister.

5. has just written / a letter / the tall man

Answer : The tall man has just written a letter

6. the students / have solved / some Mathematics problems

Answer : The students have solved some Mathematics problems.

7. her aunt tomorrow / will visit / Mary

Answer : Mary will visit her aunt tomorrow.

8. newspapers every day / my boss / reads

Answer : My boss reads newspapers every day.

9. enjoyed / the movie / the audience

Answer : The audience enjoyed the movie.

10. the cook / some chocolate cakes / has made

Answer : The cook has made some chocolate cakes.

Sentence Patterns


B. Some verbs can be followed by two objects without an ‘and’ connecting them. One of these objects is called the ‘direct object’ and the other the ‘indirect object’. Below is the pattern of a sentence containing both direct object and indirect object: Subject – Verb – Indirect Object – Direct Object



Indirect Object

Direct Object

I gave my sister a birthday present.
My parents always tell me stories.
We have lent him some money.
They are asking the teacher some questions.
Rearrange the words in correct order to make complete sentences. e.g. my sister / a birthday cake yesterday / me / baked My sister baked me a birthday cake yesterday.

1. the short man / has bought / some crayons from the stationery shop / his son

Answer : The short man has bought his son some crayons from the stationery shop.

2. the policeman / has just shown / the driver / his driving license

Answer : The driver has just shown the policeman his driving license.

3. the patient / gave / some medicine / the nurse

Answer : The nurse gave the patient some medicine.

4. brought / me / a bouquet of flowers last week / my uncle

Answer : My uncle brought me a bouquet of flowers last week.

5. the shopkeeper / the customer / is paying / two hundred dollars

Answer : The customer is paying the shopkeeper two hundred dollars.

6. he / his brother / the secret / has never told

Answer : He has never told his brother the secret.

7. a postcard from Japan / sent / her / her best friend

Answer : Her best friend sent her a postcard from Japan.

8. did not lend / his new model car / the child / his classmate

Answer : The child did not lend his classmate his new model car.

9. her mother / cooked / her / some congee

Answer : Her mother cooked her some congee.

10. has ever given / any help / the blind woman / no one in the street

Answer : No one in the street has ever given the blind woman any help.

Sentence Patterns

C. Sometimes a preposition is put in front of the indirect object. The pattern of such sentence is : Subject – Verb – Direct Object – Preposition – Indirect Object



Direct Object


Indirect Object

My friend

has sent

a letter



His parents


a computer




Rewrite each of the following sentences by placing the word in brackets before the indirect object.

e.g. My brother showed me his new wallet.(to)

My brother showed his new wallet to me.

1. The postman took her a letter yesterday. (to)

Answer : The postman took a letter to her yesterday.

2. The dog owner gives his dog a bone every day. (to)

Answer : The dog owner gives a bone to his dog every day.

3. The students sent their teacher a present. (to)

Answer : The students sent a present to their teacher.

4. The gardener handed me some flowers. (to)

Answer : The gardener handed some flowers to me.

5. My mother has already taken my father a cup of coffee.(to)

Answer : My mother has already taken a cup of coffee to my father.

6. She found me a seat in the concert last Sunday. (for)

Answer : She found a seat for me in the concert last Sunday.

7. Betty has painted her best friend a beautiful picture. (for)

Answer : Betty has painted a beautiful picture for her best friend.

8. We bought our uncle a pair of gloves on his birthday. (for)

Answer : We bought a pair of gloves for our uncle on his birthday.

9. The tailor made the princess a new dress. (for)

Answer : The tailor made a new dress for the princess.

10. Judy has baked me some chocolate cookies. (for)

Answer : Judy has baked some chocolate cookies for me.

Sentence Patterns


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