Structure And Written Expression

Structure And Written Expression

Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
Exercise 4
Exercise 5

Child Development – Structure and Written Expression

Structure And Written Expression Exercises


Structure and Written Expression: Mastering Grammar and Sentence Structure

Structure and Written Expression is a crucial component of language proficiency, as it focuses on grammar, sentence structure, and usage. A solid understanding of grammar rules and sentence construction is essential for clear and effective written communication. In this section, we will explore key aspects of structure and written expression and provide tips for improving your grammar skills.

Parts of Speech:

Understanding the different parts of speech (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) is fundamental to constructing grammatically correct sentences. Each part of speech plays a specific role in a sentence, and knowledge of their functions is essential for accurate expression.

Sentence Structure:

Mastering sentence structure is essential for conveying meaning clearly. Familiarize yourself with sentence elements such as subjects, verbs, objects, complements, and modifiers. Learn how to construct different types of sentences, including simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences.

Verb Tenses and Verb Forms:

Verb tenses convey the timing of actions and events. Understand the various verb tenses, including simple present, simple past, present perfect, past perfect, and future tenses. Learn the rules for forming verb tenses, including regular and irregular verb conjugations.


Ensure subject-verb agreement in sentences, where the verb matches the number and person of the subject. Also, maintain consistency in pronoun-antecedent agreement, where pronouns agree in number, gender, and person with their antecedents.


Use modifiers, such as adjectives and adverbs, effectively to provide additional information and enhance sentence clarity. Understand the placement and proper use of modifiers to avoid ambiguity and ensure precise expression.

Sentence Fragments and Run-On Sentences:

Avoid sentence fragments, which lack a subject, verb, or complete thought. Also, be mindful of run-on sentences, which occur when two or more independent clauses are joined incorrectly. Learn how to identify and correct these errors to improve sentence structure and coherence.

Punctuation and Capitalization:

Develop a strong grasp of punctuation marks, including commas, periods, question marks, exclamation points, colons, semicolons, and quotation marks. Understand the rules for capitalizing proper nouns, titles, and the beginning of sentences.


Maintain parallel structure in lists, comparisons, and coordinate elements to create balance and clarity in your writing. Ensure that similar items or phrases are expressed in a consistent grammatical form.

Sentence Combining and Sentence Variety:

Enhance your writing by combining shorter sentences into more complex structures. Use sentence variety to add interest and rhythm to your writing. Incorporate different sentence types, such as declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences, to engage readers.

Conclusion: Developing strong skills in Structure and Written Expression is essential for effective written communication. By understanding the various aspects of grammar, sentence structure, agreement, modifiers, punctuation, and parallelism, you can construct grammatically correct and coherent sentences. Practice regularly, review grammar rules, and seek feedback on your writing to improve your skills. With a solid foundation in Structure and Written Expression, you will enhance your ability to convey ideas clearly, engage readers, and achieve success in written communication.

Structure And Written Expression

STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION Test 1. Choose the correct answer. STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION Test 2. Choose the correct answer.

Structure And Written Expression Test 1

Test 1. Choose the correct answer.

1. Arizona ———- a very dry climate.

A) has

B) being

C) having

D) with

Answer :   A) has

2. One of the least effective ways of storing information is learning ———- it.

A) how repeat

B) repeating

C) to repeat

D) repeat

Answer :   C) to repeat

3. Strauss finished ———- two of his published compositions before his tenth birthday.

A) written

B) write

C) to write

D) writing

Answer :   D) writing

4. Many modern architects insist on ———- materials native to the region that will blend into the surrounding landscape.

A) use

B) to use

C) the use

D) using

Answer :   D) using

5. Before the Angles and the Saxons to England, the Iberians had lived there.

A) coming

B) come

C) came

D) did come

Answer :   C) came

6. If water is heated to 212 degrees F. ———- as steam.

A) it will boil and escape

B) it is boiling and escaping

C) it boil and escape

D) it would boil and escape

Answer :   A) it will boil and escape

7. According to some historians, if Napoleon had not invaded Russia, he ———- the rest of Europe.

A) had conquered

B) would conquer

C) would have conquered

D) conquered

Answer :   C) would have conquered

8. Football teams don’t play in the Super Bowl championship ———- either the National or the American Conference.

A) unless they win

B) but they win

C) unless they will win

D) But to have won

Answer :   A) unless they win

9. Less moderate members of Congress are insisting that changes in the social security system ———- made.

A) will

B) are

C) being

D) be

Answer :   D) be

10. It is necessary———- the approaches to a bridge, the road design, and the alignment in such a way as to best accommodate the expected traffic flow over and under it.

A) plan

B) to plan

C) planning

D) The plan

Answer :   B) to plan

11. In the stringed instruments, the tones ———- by playing a bow across a set of strings that may be made of wire or gut.

A) they produce

B) producing

C) are produced

D) that are producing

Answer :   C) are produced

12. ———- Giant Ape Man, our biggest and probably one of our first human ancestors, was about the size of a male gorilla.

A) It is believed that

B) That it is

C) That is believed

D) That believing

Answer :   A) It is believed that

13. By the twenty-first century, the computer ———- a necessity in every home.

A) became

B) becoming

C) has become

D) will have become

Answer :   D) will have become

14.The giraffe survives in part because it ———- the vegetation in the high branches of trees where other animals have not grazed.

A) to reach

B) can reach

C) reaching

D) reach

Answer :   B) can reach

15. Hydrogen peroxide ———- as a bleaching agent because it effectively whitens a variety of fibers and surfaces.

A) used

B) is used

C) is using

D) that is uses

Answer : B) is used

16. Since the earth’s crust is much thicker under the continents, equipment would have to be capable of drilling through 100 000 feet of rock to investigate the mantle ———-.

A) beneath them

B) beneath their

C) beneath its

D) beneath they

Answer :

17. Charlie Chaplin was a comedian ———- was best known for his work in silent movies.

A) who

B) which

C) whose

D) What

Answer : A) who

18. A desert receives less than twenty-five ———- of rainfall every year.

A) centimeter

B) a centimeter

C) centimeters

D) of centimeters

Answer : C) centimeters

19. ———- at 212 degrees F. and freezes at 32 degrees F.

A) waters boils

B) The water boils

C) Water boils

D) Waters boil

Answer : C) Water boils

20.It is generally believed that an M. B) A. Degree is good preparation for a career in———-.

A) a business

B) business

C) businesses

D) one business

Answer : B) business

21. Fire-resistant materials are used to retard ———- of modem aircraft in case of accidents.

A) a damage to the passenger cabin

B) that damages to the passenger cabin

C) damage to the passenger cabin

D) passenger cabin’s damages

Answer : C) damage to the passenger cabin

22. Hybrids have one more ———- per plant than the other varieties.

A) corns

B) ear of corn

C) corn ears

D) corn’s ears

Answer : B) ear of corn

23. ———- trees is a custom that many people engage in to celebrate Arbor day.

A) The plant

B) Plant

C) Planting

D) To planting

Answer : C) Planting

24. ———- migrate long distances is well documented.

A) That it is birds

B) That birds

C) Birds that

D) it is that birds

Answer : B) That birds

25. At Woolworth’s first five-and-ten-cent store, ———- more than a dime.

A) neither items cost

B) items not cost

C) items non costing

D) no item cost

Answer : D) no item cost

26. ———- fuel that is used today is a chemical form of solar energy.

A) Most of

B) The most

C) Most

D) Almost the

Answer : B) The most

27. ———- is cheaper for students who maintain aB average because they are a better risk than average or below-average students.

A) Automobile’s insurance

B) Insurance of automobiles

C) Automobile insurance

D) Insurance automobile

Answer : C) Automobile insurance

28. The Canterbury Tales, written about 1386, is as alive and ———- today as it was nearly 600 years ago.

A) appealed

B) appeal

C) appealing

D) the appeal of

Answer : C) appealing

29. Oil paints are ———- they have become the most popular painter’s colors.

A) so versatile and durable that

B) so versatile and durable than

C) such versatile and durable as

D) such versatile and durable

Answer : A) so versatile and durable that

30. Although we often use “speed” and “velocity” interchangeably, in a technical sense, “speed” is not always ———- “velocity”.

A) alike

B) the same as

C) similar

D) as

Answer : A) alike

Structure And Written Expression Exercises

Structure And Written Expression Test 2

Test 2. Choose the correct answer.

1. Although they are smaller, chipmunks are ———- most other ground squirrels.

A) like to

B) like as

C) like

D) alike

Answer : C) like

2. After the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, the United States had ———- it had previously owned.

A) twice more land than

B) two times more lad as

C) twice as much land as

D) two times much land than

Answer : C) twice as much land as

3. In the Great Smoky Mountains, one can see ———- 150 different kinds of trees.

A) more than

B) as much as

C) up as

D) as many to

Answer : A) more than

4. It has been estimated that ———- one hundred thousand men participated in the gold rush of 1898.

A) approximate

B) until

C) as many as

D) more

Answer : C) as many as

5. ———- apples are grown in Washington State.

A) Best

B) The most good

C) The best

D) The better

Answer : C) The best

6. It is generally true that the lower the stock market falls, ———-.

A) higher the price of gold rises

B) the price of gold rises high

C) the higher the price of gold rises

D) rises high the price of gold

Answer : C) the higher the price of gold rises

7. ———- in the cultivation of a forest, trees need more careful planning than any other crop does.

A) Because the time and area involved

B) For the time and area involving

C) Because of the time and area involved

D) As a cause of the time and area involved

Answer : C) Because of the time and area involved

8. Amniocentesis can be used not only to diagnose fetal disorders ———- the sex of the unborn child with 95 percent accuracy.

A) but determining

B) but also determining

C) but to determine

D) but also to determine

Answer : D) but also to determine

9. Bacterial spores germinate and sprout ———- favorable conditions of temperature and food supply.

A) when encountering of

B) when they encounter

C) when they will encounter

D) when the encounter of

Answer : B) when they encounter

10. Recently, there have been several outbreaks of disease like legionnaire’s syndrome, and doctors don’t know ———- .

A) what is the cause

B) the cause is what

C) is what the cause

D) what the cause is

Answer : D) what the cause is

11. Not until the Triassic Period ———- .

A) the first primitive mammals did develop

B) did the first primitive mammals develop

C) did develop the first primitive mammals

D) the first primitive mammals develop

Answer : B) did the first primitive mammals develop

12. Penguins, the post highly specialized of all aquatic birds, may live ———- twenty years.

A) before

B) since

C) for

D) from

Answer : C) for

13. _ the Gulf Stream is warmer than the ocean water surrounding it.

A) Wholly

B) Whole

C) As a whole

D) A whole as

Answer : C) As a whole

14.Of all the cities in Texas, ———- .

A) that san Antonio is probably the most picturesque

B) San Antonio is probably the most picturesque

C) probably San Antonio the most picturesque

D) the most picturesque probably that San Antonio

Answer : B) San Antonio is probably the most picturesque

15. Most beekeepers have observed ———- at the approach of a thunderstorm.

A) enraging the bees

B) that bees become enrages

C) that bees enraging

D) become enraged the bees

Answer : B) that bees become enrages

16.The first transistor was basically a small chip made of germanium onto one surface of which two pointed wire contacts ———- side by side.

A) are made

B) made

C) were made

D) making

Answer : C) were made

17. Iron ———- for weapons and tools in the Bronze Age following the Stone Age.

A) is generally used

B) generally used

C) was generally used

D) used generally

Answer : C) was generally used

18. Groups of tissues, each with its own function, ———- in the human body.

A) it makes up the organs

B) make up the organs

C) they make up the organs

D) makes up the organs

Answer : B) make up the organs

19. Cupid, one of the ancient Roman gods, ———- .

A) were a little winged child

B) representing as a little winged child

C) was represented as a little winged child

D) a little winged child

Answer : C) was represented as a little winged child

20. In a suspension bridge ———- that carry one or more flexible cables firmly attached at each end.

A) there are two towers on it

B) there are two towers

C) two towers there are

D) towers there are two

Answer : B) there are two towers

21. A college bookstore that sells used textbooks stocks ———- along with the new ones on the shelf under the course title.

A) its

B) their

C) a

D) them

Answer : D) them

22. The television programs we allow ———- to watch influence their learning.

A) a children

B) our children

C) our child

D) their childs

Answer : our children

23. In a hot, sunny climate man acclimatizes by eating less, drinking more liquids, wearing lighter clothing, and ———- .

A) skin changes that darken

B) his skin may darken

C) experiencing a darkening of the skin

D) darkens his skin

Answer : C) experiencing a darkening of the skin

23. Both historically and ———-, Ontario is the heartland of Canada.

A) in its geography

B) geographically

C) also its geography

D) geography

Answer : B) geographically

25. Waitresses and waiters who serve ———- deserve at least a 20 percent tip.

A) in a courteous manner

B) courteously

C) with courtesy in their manner

D) courteous

Answer : B) courteously

26. The average elevation of the Himalayas is twenty thousand feet, and Mount Everest ———- to more than twenty-nine thousand feet at its apex.

A) raises

B) rises

C) roses

D) arises

Answer : B) rises

27. When Jacqueline Kennedy was first lady, she collected many beautiful antiques and ———- them among the original pieces in the White House.

A) sat

B) set

C) sit

D) sits

Answer : B) set

28. The president usually ———- unless his press secretary approves it.

A) doesn’t do a statement

B) doesn’t make a statement

C) doesn’t statement

D) no statement

Answer : B) doesn’t make a statement

29. ———- discovery of insulin, it was not possible to treat diabetes.

A) Prior to the

B) Prior

C) The prior

D) To prior

Answer : A) Prior to the

30. Unless protected areas are established, the Bengal tiger, the blue whale, and the California condor face ———- of extinction.

A) possible

B) the possibility

C) to be possible

D) possibly

Answer : B) the possibility

Structure And Written Expression Exercises

Structure And Written Expression Test 3

Test 2. Choose the correct answer.

1. Telephone cables that use optical fibers can be ……… conventional cables, yet they typically carry much more information.

A ) they are smaller and lighter
B ) than the smaller and lighter
C ) smaller and lighter than
D ) so small and light that

C ) In the main clause of this sentence, “telephone cables that use optical fibers” are compared to “conventional cables.” Using the comparative form of the adjectives “small” and “light” followed by “than” correctly completes this sentence.

2. In making cheese, ………, is coagulated by enzyme action, by lactic acid, or by both.

A ) casein is the chief milk protein
B ) casein, being that the chief milk protein
C ) the chief milk protein is casein
D ) casein, the chief milk protein

D ) A subject is needed to complete this sentence. In D ) , “casein” is the subject of this sentence, even when followed by a noun phrase enclosed in commas that further identifies the subject.

3. Sensory structures ……… from the heads of some invertebrates are called antennae.

A ) are growing
B ) they are growing
C ) that grow
D ) grow

C ) The relative (adjective) clause, “that grow from the heads of invertebrates” modifies the noun “structures.” The other choices do not modify the noun correctly.

4. An étude is a short musical composition written especially ……… a particular technique.

A ) enable students practicing
B ) enables students practicing
C ) enable students to practice
D ) to enable students to practice

D ) The infinitive form of the verb is the only choice that completes this sentence grammatically. In this sentence, “to” of the infinitive is a shortened form of “in order to” and indicates purpose.

5. ……… the United States consists of many different immigrant groups, many sociologists believe there is a distinct national character.

A ) In spite of
B ) Despite
C ) Even though
D ) Whether

C ) Only the adverbial “even though” is a subordinating conjunction that can correctly complete the dependent clause of this sentence.

6. ……… many food preservation methods for inhibiting the growth of bacteria.

A ) The
B ) Since
C ) There are
D ) Having

. C ) This question tests the structure “there” + “be.” The subject follows “be” when “there” is used. “There are” is required to complete this sentence correctly because the subject “methods” is plural.

7. The safflower plant is grown chiefly for the oil ……… from its seeds.

A ) obtained
B ) is obtaining
C ) which obtains it
D ) obtaining that

A ) The passive form “obtained” is the only choice that completes this sentence grammatically. In this sentence, “obtained” is the shortened form of “that is obtained.”

8. Newspaper historians feel that Joseph Pulitzer exercised ……… on journalism in the United States during his lifetime.

A ) influence remarkable
B ) remarkable for his influence
C ) influence was remarkable
D ) remarkable influence

D ) An object is needed to complete this sentence. In D ) , the noun “influence” is the object, modified by the adjective “remarkable,” and these words are in the correct word order

9. ……… must have water to lay and fertilize their eggs, while their offspring, tadpoles, need water for development and growth.

A ) Though frogs and toads
B ) Frogs and toads
C ) That frogs and toads
D ) If frogs and toads

B ) A subject is needed to complete the main clause of this sentence. The subject here is composed of two nouns joined by “and.”

10. The philosopher and educator John Dewey rejected ……….

A ) to use authoritarian teaching methods
B ) that authoritarian teaching methods
C ) for authoritarian teaching methods
D ) authoritarian teaching method

D ) An object is required to complete this sentence. The noun phrase “authoritarian teaching methods” is the only choice that can act as the object of this sentence.

Choose the 1 word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

1) In the past, lions ——— common in many parts of the world.

a) were
b) once
c) when
d) only

Answer : a) were

2) Vegetables are an excellent source ——– vitamins.

a) have
b) of
c) where
d) contain

Answer : b) of

3) Microscopes make small things appear larger than ——–.

a) really are
b) are really
c) are they really
d) they really are

Answer : d) they really are

4) The city of Montreal ——— on an island in the Saint Lawrence River.

a) was built
b) has built
c) that built
d) built

Answer : a) was built

5) A singer’s struggle to succeed in popular music is the kind of story ——— a fascinating film could be made.

a) with
b) by
c) for whom
d) about which

Answer : d) about which

Structure Practice Questions

Structure And Written Expression Practice Questions


Structure And Written Expression

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